The United States did not immediately begin to conclude similar social security agreements; Instead, it entered into a series of friendship, trade and shipping (FCN) contracts with close allies and trading partners. Many fcn contracts provide that each country treats the nationals of the other country as it treats its own nationals when they are entitled to social benefits.11 However, it soon became clear that these FCN contracts did not adequately protect the social benefits rights of American emigrants and that many American workers sent abroad and their employers were forced to pay double social security contributions for the same income. Self-employed workers are also exempt from double taxation by two social security schemes. However, the country in which contributions must be defined differently depends on the source of income of social security, the duration of self-employment (extended or random income) and, for some countries, by nationality and not residence (i.e. Italian nationals contribute to the Italian scheme, while non-citizens residing in Italy contribute to the US social security system). To be sure that the country in which you will pay your contributions, be sure to inquire about the agreement that is (if any) between the United States and the foreign country in which you live and work. These exceptions, based on the country of nationality or nationality of the worker, are provisions of the Social Security Act. In most cases, totalization agreements expand the ability of benefits to be nsogability based on their residence. U.S. totalization agreements with other countries generally have some key elements. Overall, totalization agreements eliminate the dual social security of workers in the United States and the other country where they are from or in which they work. In doing so, one worker is excluded either from the other country`s taxation and social benefits program. There are many rules governing a worker`s social security system.
One rule, the territorial rule, stipulates that a worker is subject to the laws of the country in which he works. This rule is active throughout the United States.